Luke 22

Luke 22

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The Plot to Kill Jesus

22 Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called the Passover. And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to put him to death, for they feared the people.

Judas to Betray Jesus

Then Satan entered into Judas called Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve. He went away and conferred with the chief priests and officers how he might betray him to them. And they were glad, and agreed to give him money. So he consented and sought an opportunity to betray him to them in the absence of a crowd.

The Passover with the Disciples

Then came the day of Unleavened Bread, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat it.” They said to him, “Where will you have us prepare it?” He said to them, “Behold, when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him into the house that he enters and tell the master of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ And he will show you a large upper room furnished; prepare it there.” And they went and found it just as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover.

Institution of the Lord’s Supper

And when the hour came, he reclined at table, and the apostles with him. And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. For I tell you I will not eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he said, “Take this, and divide it among yourselves. For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood. But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. For the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!” And they began to question one another, which of them it could be who was going to do this.

Who Is the Greatest?

A dispute also arose among them, as to which of them was to be regarded as the greatest. And he said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those in authority over them are called benefactors. But not so with you. Rather, let the greatest among you become as the youngest, and the leader as one who serves. For who is the greater, one who reclines at table or one who serves? Is it not the one who reclines at table? But I am among you as the one who serves.

“You are those who have stayed with me in my trials, and I assign to you, as my Father assigned to me, a kingdom, that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Jesus Foretells Peter’s Denial

“Simon, Simon, behold, Satan demanded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat, but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail. And when you have turned again, strengthen your brothers.” Peter said to him, “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death.” Jesus said, “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow this day, until you deny three times that you know me.”

Scripture Must Be Fulfilled in Jesus

And he said to them, “When I sent you out with no moneybag or knapsack or sandals, did you lack anything?” They said, “Nothing.” He said to them, “But now let the one who has a moneybag take it, and likewise a knapsack. And let the one who has no sword sell his cloak and buy one. For I tell you that this Scripture must be fulfilled in me: ‘And he was numbered with the transgressors.’ For what is written about me has its fulfillment.” And they said, “Look, Lord, here are two swords.” And he said to them, “It is enough.”

Jesus Prays on the Mount of Olives

And he came out and went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives, and the disciples followed him. And when he came to the place, he said to them, “Pray that you may not enter into temptation.” And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and knelt down and prayed, saying, “Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.” And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthening him. And being in agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground. And when he rose from prayer, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping for sorrow, and he said to them, “Why are you sleeping? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation.”

Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus

While he was still speaking, there came a crowd, and the man called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He drew near to Jesus to kiss him, but Jesus said to him, “Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?” And when those who were around him saw what would follow, they said, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword?” And one of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear. But Jesus said, “No more of this!” And he touched his ear and healed him. Then Jesus said to the chief priests and officers of the temple and elders, who had come out against him, “Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? When I was with you day after day in the temple, you did not lay hands on me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.”

Peter Denies Jesus

Then they seized him and led him away, bringing him into the high priest’s house, and Peter was following at a distance. And when they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat down among them. Then a servant girl, seeing him as he sat in the light and looking closely at him, said, “This man also was with him.” But he denied it, saying, “Woman, I do not know him.” And a little later someone else saw him and said, “You also are one of them.” But Peter said, “Man, I am not.” And after an interval of about an hour still another insisted, saying, “Certainly this man also was with him, for he too is a Galilean.” But Peter said, “Man, I do not know what you are talking about.” And immediately, while he was still speaking, the rooster crowed. And the Lord turned and looked at Peter. And Peter remembered the saying of the Lord, how he had said to him, “Before the rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.” And he went out and wept bitterly.

Jesus Is Mocked

Now the men who were holding Jesus in custody were mocking him as they beat him. They also blindfolded him and kept asking him, “Prophesy! Who is it that struck you?” And they said many other things against him, blaspheming him.

Jesus Before the Council

When day came, the assembly of the elders of the people gathered together, both chief priests and scribes. And they led him away to their council, and they said, “If you are the Christ, tell us.” But he said to them, “If I tell you, you will not believe, and if I ask you, you will not answer. But from now on the Son of Man shall be seated at the right hand of the power of God.” So they all said, “Are you the Son of God, then?” And he said to them, “You say that I am.” Then they said, “What further testimony do we need? We have heard it ourselves from his own lips.”

(ESV)


Luke 22 Commentary

by Hank Workman

The Passover was a commemoration of Israel’s escape from Egypt after being held in bondage for 400 years.  Through specific instructions, the  Jewish people were told what to do on the eve before their deliverance would take place.

One of these was painting the doorframes with the blood of the lamb sacrifice which protected and saved the Israelite male boys when an angel passed over the land.  This event completely foreshadowed Jesus, the perfect Lamb of God.  It would be His own blood that would save as He was sacrificed once and for all as salvation would come to all people.

This Passover was a feast where all Jewish males after the age of 12 were required to go to Jerusalem.  Following this was a 7-day festival called the Feast of Unleavened Bread.  From all over the Roman Empire, Jewish men and families would travel to celebrate one of the most important events in their history.

There is a richness to the timing of what took place within the next few hours for Jesus and God’s orchestration of all things coming down in His perfect timing.  The city was bursting at the scenes.  The packed madhouse of travelers there for the event of Passover/Unleavened Bread would be there hearing some of the last teachings of Jesus.  They would be there when this Man rode into Jerusalem on a donkey.  They would be there and witness the slaughter of Him by the religious hierarchy. 

They would be there when the rumors began floating of His resurrection. These masses would be there and take back to their own towns, villages and even foreign cities if they traveled that far, the direct message and firsthand account.

It also was God’s rich timing that the slaughter of His Son, the perfect Lamb of God would take place during Passover as well.  Jesus was the fulfillment of all prophecies and the visual and drawing the lines between the festival and the event would resonate far deeper than if it had been on any given day.

As the events unfolded those last hours of Jesus’ life – all was overseen by God and would work itself into the amazing story of His grace.  This would be found from the disciples going to prepare the Passover to the beautiful and poignant last meal He shared with them with all the instruction and prayers for them, to the reveal of the betrayer and the prediction of the denial of one of His closest.  And even from the Garden where Jesus agonized to the arrest to standing before the council of corrupt men – the timing was with the greater picture unfolding of what God was about to do next.

There are many times we struggle to understand what God is doing.  There are many questions that often bombard our thoughts when hardship and difficulty come.  But as God was the architect in His unfolding of a miraculous work of His grace and plan for all people, He is doing the same in our own storyline.  And it is a storyline of His glory, His grace, and His purpose even when we question.


Luke 22 Commentary

by Brad Boyles

A hotly debated topic from Luke 22 is the notorious “two swords” passage. A brief study of the passage will give you many differing perspectives. Let’s look at the verses, and then the overall context.

Then Jesus asked his disciples, “When I sent you out that time without purse, bag, or shoes, did you lack anything?” “Not a thing,” they answered. [36] “But now,” Jesus said, “whoever has a purse or a bag must take it; and whoever does not have a sword must sell his coat and buy one. [37] For I tell you that the scripture which says, ‘He shared the fate of criminals,’ must come true about me, because what was written about me is coming true.” [38] The disciples said, “Look! Here are two swords, Lord!” “That is enough!” he replied.

Luke 22:35-38 GNB

It’s important to note that Jesus had been very strategic in how and where he taught over the final 10 days of his life. He knew that once he rode into Jerusalem as a victorious Savior, He was a dead man. The teachers of the law had been looking to get Him alone and because He was so strategic, the crowds were always around. Enter Judas, who agrees to betray Christ and lead the Roman officials to where Jesus is located at a time when there are no crowds around. Overall, there is a radical shift that takes place in the ministry of Christ as His public position goes from hospitable to hostile.

In this conversation with His disciples, I do not personally believe He is speaking literally with regards to the sword. Here are my reasons…

Jesus clearly states that his servants do not fight back against the powers of this world.

Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, then My servants would be fighting so that I would not be handed over to the Jews; but as it is, My kingdom is not of this realm.”

John 18:36 NASB

Peter draws his sword and cuts off the ear of a Roman official and Jesus rebukes him.

Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back into its place; for all those who take up the sword shall perish by the sword.

Matthew 26:52 NASB

Jesus encourages his followers not to retaliate against violence.

“You have heard that it was said, ‘AN EYE FOR AN EYE, AND A TOOTH FOR A TOOTH.’ [39] “But I say to you, do not resist an evil person; but whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also.

Matthew 5:38-39 NASB

On top of this, I cannot find a verse in Acts where we read of the apostles carrying a money belt, bag, or sword with them, and church tradition tells us that almost every one of the apostles was killed for their faith without putting up any kind of resistance or self-defense.

So, what could Jesus be referring to here? I believe it’s a metaphor explaining the drastic change that’s about to happen for these men. Again, they have no idea what Jesus is about to go through or the backlash that will take place for His followers. Jesus is using this language to explain that this prophecy must be fulfilled, and things are about to get dangerous.

“The disciples take Jesus’ remarks literally and incorrectly. They note that they have two swords, but Jesus cuts off the discussion. Something is not right, but it is too late to discuss it. As the arrest will show, they have misunderstood. They draw swords then, but Jesus stops their defense in its tracks. He is not telling them to buy swords to wield in physical battle. They will have to provide for themselves and fend for themselves, but not through the shedding of blood. They are being drawn into a great cosmic struggle, and they must fight with spiritual swords and resources. The purchase of swords serves only to picture this coming battle. This fight requires special weapons (Eph 6:10-18).”

IVP New Testament Commentary

“Mention of the need to purchase a sword adds to this picture a metaphorical reference to the coming reality. The possibility that Jesus’ followers are literally to respond to hostility with a sword—that is, with violence—is negated in Luk 22:49-51 and elsewhere in the Third Gospel “sword” has been used as an image of animosity (Luk 12:51-53; cf. Luk 2:34-35).

New International Commentary – New Testament

The reason he compares it to the first time He sent them out is because they were generally received with hospitality and needed nothing. Now, as they go out as marked men, and need to understand that everything will change. Does it mean that Jesus approves of them using violence to defend themselves? I think it’s highly unlikely given the consistency of His overall message in the verses above. In verse 38, they present Him with two swords to which Christ answers, “It is enough.” I take that, as several commentators do, to mean, “Enough of this.”

In the rare case that Jesus does mean taking a literal sword or two, in this case, I do not believe it’s justification for bloodshed, as we see no evidence of this in Acts. A sword would have had many practical uses outside of being used for violence.

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